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International Consensus Statement on ADHD – January 2002

(Commentary, within brackets, by Fred A. Baughman Jr.,MD)

We, the undersigned consortium of 74 international scientists, are deeply concerned about the periodic inaccurate portrayal of attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) in media reports. This is a disorder with which we are all very familiar and toward which many of
us have dedicated scientific studies if not entire careers.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
The term "disorder" leaves unclear whether or not it is a disease having, as it must, a confirming, objective physical abnormality. Parents, patients, and the public-at- large, is being told by all health professionals who practice "mental health" that it is a "disease," that it is due to a "chemical imbalance" of the brain and that they are remiss, even negligent,if they resist treatment of their child with dangerous, addictive, sometimes deadly, Schedule II, controlled substances. Nor does it require a consensus conference, or 74 "experts," who say nothing of their financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry, to determine whether or not ADHD is a disease. All it takes is patient-by-patient proof of an objective abnormality. It is exactly such proof that they lack and that all physicians who "diagnose" and "treat" ADHD lack. Absent an objective abnormality on physical examination (including neurological examination), a laboratory test, x-ray, scan, biopsy, or autopsy, they have demonstrated/diagnosed no disease whatsoever and they must not be allowed to say to patients and parents and to the public that they have. Nor, having demonstrated no abnormality/disease should they be allowed to initiate any medical or surgical treatment]

We fear that inaccurate stories rendering ADHD as myth, fraud, or benign condition may cause thousands of sufferers not to seek treatment for their disorder.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
In saying, implying and alleging that ADHD is a disease, one always needing potent, dangerous, pharmacological treatment--the burden of proof is always theirs. They fail to demonstrate an abnormality/disease, and blame those who doubt what they say and do. All they must do, as with any real disease, is demonstrate the objective abnormality (abnormality = disease; no abnormality = normal = no disease). No abnormality means there is nothing to treat to make normal]

It also leaves the public with a general sense that this disorder is not valid or real or consists of a rather trivial affliction. We have created this consensus statement on ADHD as a reference on the status of the
scientific findings concerning this disorder, its validity, and its adverse impact on the lives of those diagnosed with the disorder as of this writing (January 2002).

Occasional coverage of the disorder casts the story in the form of a sporting event with evenly matched competitors. The views of a handful of non-expert doctors that ADHD does not exist are contrasted against mainstream scientific views that it does, as if both views had equal merit.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
The words "disorder," " disease," and "illness" have been much perverted by present-day disease-mongering, psychiatry, looking to sell medications for their controlling partner, Big Pharma, while they turn their profit as "pushers." For that reason I try to make clear that in medicine and surgery, the abnormality is the disease, i.e., abnormality = disease; no abnormality = normal = no disease. In medicine and surgery we do not equivocate, using the term "disorder." All types of physicians, with the exception of psychiatrists, have as their primary duty, patient-by-patient, to determine whether or not disease/abnormality is present, and, if so, which one. This process usually involves a solitary physician who, occasionally, refers the patient to a specialist to clarify which disease is present, or issues concerning treatment. Moreover, this is not a question what is or is not found in some research subject at a far off medical. Whether or not your children or grandchildren, or mine, have a given disease or not, is determined, child-by-child, by your own physicians, in your own community. If no abnormality is found, they have no disease. Whether 74 "experts" residing elsewhere believe ADHD exists or not is beside the point. Whether or not, patient-by-patient, they have an abnormality/disease is the sole determining factor]

Such attempts at balance give the public the impression that there is substantial scientific disagreement over whether ADHD is a real medical condition. In fact, there
is no such disagreement –at least no more so than there is over whether smoking causes cancer, for example, or whether a virus causes HIV/AIDS.

The U.S. Surgeon General, the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Psychiatric Association, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP),
the American Psychological Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), among others, all recognize ADHD as a valid disorder.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
So they "recognize it" but where is the proof? All of the above organizations have spoken of ADHD as if it were an actual disease, due to an abnormality within the brain or body of patients, which all of them know has not been proved to the present day. The public cannot imagine, at least not so far, that their federal government and leading medical organizations would engage in a deception for profit only. I have asked all of these parties and organizations and their officers for the proof that ADHD is an disease due to a demonstrable objective abnormality and either they have confessed there is none, or they refuse to reply. Surgeon General, David Satcher, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics, are clearly parties to this unprecedented deception of all the American people]

While some of these organizations have issued guidelines for evaluation and management of the disorder for their
membership, this is the first consensus statement issued by an independent consortium of leading scientists concerning
the status of the disorder. Among scientists who have devoted years, if not entire careers, to the study of this disorder there is no controversy regarding its existence.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Saying ADHD is a disease in a single individual requires only the demonstration of an objective abnormality in that individual; they have not done that. Saying there is an ADHD epidemic means their are hundreds, thousands or, in the case of the US, millions, having the distinctive, confirming abnormality of ADHD, and yet, no single individual among those thus labeled and victimized has been shown to have such a confirming abnormality]

ADHD and Science

We cannot over emphasize the point that, as a matter of science, the notion that ADHD does not exist is simply wrong.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Show us the test result, show us the abnormality--it is that simple. It is only because we have had 20 years of ADD/ADHD and there has never been an abnormality, much less, a test showing an abnormality, patient-by-patient, that skepticism and disbelief has, grown]

All of the major medical associations and government health
agencies recognize ADHD as a genuine disorder because the scientific evidence indicating it is so is overwhelming.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Nor can the public believe that their government would so deceive and victimize them. But it has. And it does. The Surgeon General, the DEA, the FDA, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Congress, the Senate, the US Department of Education (heaven knows) and the entire US judiciary, all believe ADHD is a disease, and make policy and rulings, to the satisfaction of Big Pharma and US psychiatry and medicine, as if it were.]

Various approaches have been used to establish whether a condition rises to the level of a valid medical or psychiatric disorder.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Whether a condition rises or not to the level of being valid may be how it works in psychiatry and psychology but that is not the way it works in the practice of medicine otherwise. At the 1998, American Society of Adolescent Psychiatry, James Swanson, Ph.D., confessed that all psychiatric diagnosis is subjective. This sets psychiatry apart from the rest of medicine which deals with the presence or absence of physical abnormalities.]

A very useful one stipulates that there must be
scientifically established evidence that those suffering the condition have a serious deficiency in or failure of a physical or psychological mechanism that is universal to
humans. That is, all humans normally would be expected, regardless of culture, to have developed that mental ability. And there must be equally incontrovertible scientific evidence that this serious deficiency
leads to harm to the individual. Harm is established through evidence of increased mortality, morbidity, or impairment in the major life activities required of one’s
developmental stage in life. Major life activities are those domains of functioning such as education, social relationships, family functioning, independence and self-sufficiency, and occupational functioning that all
humans of that developmental level are expected to perform.
As attested to by the numerous scientists signing this document, there is no question among the world’s leading clinical researchers that ADHD involves a serious
deficiency in a set of psychological abilities and that these deficiencies pose serious harm to most individuals
possessing the disorder.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
And yet these same experts have repeatedly claimed there were brain abnormalities, "chemical imbalances" in patients labeled ADHD. And yet, with 6-7 million thus labeled, none with an objective test, 65-75% in some classrooms, they have yet to find a demonstrable abnormality. What we have here is a spirited defense of the scientifically- defenseless. Each of these 74 illustrious "experts" must be made to divulge their individual ties to the pharmaceutical industry. Almost all of them have controlling ties to industry. Why else would they invent ADHD and countless other psychiatric "diseases" out of thin air?]

Current evidence indicates that deficits in
behavioral inhibition and sustained attention are central to this disorder — facts demonstrated through hundreds of
scientific studies. And there is no doubt that ADHD leads to impairments in major life activities, including social relations, education, family functioning, occupational
functioning, self-sufficiency, and adherence to social rules, norms, and laws.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
There is no doubt that labeling normal children ADHD and having them, their families, and all in their lives believe their brain is defective, then making it defective (for the first time) with amphetamines, no doubt gives ADHD, a nasty "prognosis"--one that would never come to pass were the label expunged and were all their educational and parental needs truly met.]

Evidence also indicates that those with ADHD are more prone to physical injury and accidental poisonings. This
is why no professional medical, psychological, or scientific organization doubts the existence of ADHD as a legitimate disorder.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
The "experts" in this disease-that-doesn't-exist, regularly state, the cause (of ADHD) is not known, but, that this, that, and the other thing are probable contributory causes. They do so hoping the reader/listener will presume that because a cause is spoken of ADHD must surely exist. They regularly speak of subtypes of this and that non-existent disease, reasoning if there are 6 types, or ADHD as proclaimed by psychiatrist, Daniel Amen of California, surely there must be some validity somewhere. There isn't! Above, they speak of "co-morbidities" and of it's grave "prognosis" hoping the naive will presume there must surely be an entity because they speak of it's ill-effects, and or it's dire consequences--it's "prognosis." Further, the deception and betrayal is so complete and so brazen that laypersons could not possibly imagine them capable of it. The perpetrators know and count on this. ]

The central psychological deficits in those with ADHD have now been linked
numerous studies using various scientific methods to several specific brain
regions (the frontal
lobe, its connections to the basal ganglia, and their relationship to the
central aspects of the

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Here, they continue to posit that physical abnormalities have been proven. The problem is that after 20 years of ADD/ADHD and 6-7 patients on dangerous, addictive stimulant drugs, there is no type of examination or test that can confirm an abnormality anywhere in the brain or body of a person labeled according to the DSM-IV as ADHD. Here they do nothing more than try to "snow" us with brain-talk, and as this--yet another "consensus statement", clearly attests, the "snow job" is fast-unraveling. ]

Most neurological studies find that as a group those with ADHD
have less brain
electrical activity and show less reactivity to stimulation in one or more
of these regions.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
it is not "studies" that matter. In final analysis it is whether or not, patient-by-patient, a tell-tale, diagnostic abnormality can be tested for and demonstrated. We do not begin insulin until the blood sugar is shown to be high--clearly diabetic. We should not begin Ritalin and other of the amphetamines, the so-called, "chemical balancers" until a "chemical imbalance" has been demonstrated, and yet that is just what has been done in the US, to our ever-lasting disgrace, without proof of a disease, in 6-7 million of our very own children never, ever shown to be other than normal, only labeled so, labeled ADHD!]

neuro-imaging studies of groups of those with ADHD also demonstrate
relatively smaller areas
of brain matter and less metabolic activity of this brain matter than is the
case in control groups
used in these studies.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Brain scanning studies from 1986 through the present, using mostly structural or anatomic, MRI studies have shown that the brains of those with ADHD are consistently smaller/shriveled/atrophic when compared to the brains--not of children with ADHD, never treated with brain-damaging psychostimulants, but of entirely normal, never-labeled children. In reviewing this research at the 1998 Consensus Conference, James Swanson, Ph.D, of the University of California, Irvine and FX Castellanos of the National Institutes of Mental Health told their audience and the nation's press corp that this line of research proved that ADHD was a disease--a brain disease. What they absolutely withheld from the audience was that all of the studies they reviewed (1986-1998) were done on ADHD subjects that were on encephalopathic, brain-damaging drugs. Schedule II, Ritalin and other amphetamine. It was only after I took a floor microphone and contronted Swanson (presenting) that he confessed that I was correct, that the majority of ADHD subjects in all of the studies had been on long-term stimulant treatment. Nor has any such study been done to date utilizing ADHD subjects, all of whom were drug-free.]

These same psychological deficits in inhibition and attention have been
found in
numerous studies of identical and fraternal twins conducted across various
countries (US, Great
Britain, Norway, Australia, etc.) to be primarily inherited. The genetic
contribution to these
traits is routinely found to be among the highest for any psychiatric
disorder (70-95% of trait
variation in the population), nearly approaching the genetic contribution to
human height. One
gene has recently been reliably demonstrated to be associated with this
disorder and the search
for more is underway by more than 12 different scientific teams worldwide at
this time.
Numerous studies of twins demonstrate that family environment makes no
separate contribution to these traits.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Given an entity that commonly affects, 50-60% of children in a given class or school, population genetics and twin studies, fall far short of proving a gene abnormality. No objective gene, chromosome, or DNA techniques has yet confirmed a genetic defect in ADHD. This leaves the first, confirming, objective, physical abnormality in ADHD yet to be found.

This is not to say that the home
environment, parental
management abilities, stressful life events, or deviant peer relationships
are unimportant or have
no influence on individuals having this disorder, as they certainly do.
Genetic tendencies are
expressed in interaction with the environment. Also, those having ADHD often
have other
associated disorders and problems, some of which are clearly related to
their social
environments. But it is to say that the underlying psychological deficits
that comprise ADHD
itself are not solely or primarily the result of these environmental

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
As long as they can successfully maintain some sort of medical/physical/genetic/neurological defect, however vague, however invisible and intangible, they will have a justification to prescribe their drugs, and that, after all is what their insistence, sans evidence/proof is all about. Again, what we need from one and all to complete the picture of what is happening here is their financial statement, one every bit as thorough as the one we fill out for our home mortgage.]

This is why leading international scientists, such as the signers below,
recognize the
mounting evidence of neurological and genetic contributions to this
disorder. This evidence,
coupled with countless studies on the harm posed by the disorder and
hundreds of studies on the
effectiveness of medication, buttresses the need in many, though by no means
all, cases for
management of the disorder with multiple therapies. These include medication
combined with
educational, family, and other social accommodations.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
they will acknowledge the need for
educational, family, and other social accommodations, just so long as there is alway acceptance that ADHD is a "disease" and the need, always, to include medication.]

This is in striking
contrast to the wholly
unscientific views of some social critics in periodic media accounts that
ADHD constitutes a
fraud, that medicating those afflicted is questionable if not reprehensible,
and that any behavior
problems associated with ADHD are merely the result of problems in the home,
viewing of TV or playing of video games, diet, lack of love and attention,
or teacher/school

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
If no abnormality/disease has been shown/proved/demonstrated/diagnosed, child-by-child, person-by-person, their is nothing medical or surgical to treat. If no physical/medical/surgical/organic/biological/organic abnormality has been demonstrated, they are not entitle to say is it anything other than the
result of problems in the home,excessive viewing of TV or playing of video games, diet, lack of love and attention,or teacher/school intolerance. They have--as unthinkable as it may be--invented a 'disease' out of thin air; a chemical imbalance without which their would be nothing for which to prescribe and court-order their "chemical balancers" for]

ADHD is not a benign disorder. For those it afflicts, ADHD can cause
problems. Follow-up studies of clinical samples suggest that sufferers are
far more likely than
normal people to drop out of school (32-40%), to rarely complete college
(5-10%), to have few
or no friends (50-70%), to under perform at work (70-80%), to engage in
antisocial activities
(40-50%), and to use tobacco or illicit drugs more than normal.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
the ADHD "experts" have rejected the biggest-by-far of prospective studies of the effects of giving Schedule II, addictive, psychostimulants to ADHD children--that of Nadine Lamber of UC Berkeley, that showed that these substances result in heightened life-time smoking and drug abuse, particularly of stimulants, including cocaine. Instead they site the miniscule study of Biederman, et al, contrived, I think, for no reason other than to trump the valid Lambert study. The Biederman study contained only 19 non-drugged ADHD subjects, and concluded that the never-validated "disease," ADHD had as a side effect, drug abusing, and that where Ritalin and other Schedule II stimulants are consistently given, the rate of subsequent drug abuse is diminished by 85%. Man O' man, do we ever need those financial statements. ]

children growing up
with ADHD are more likely to experience teen pregnancy (40%) and sexually
diseases (16%), to speed excessively and have multiple car accidents, to
experience depression
(20-30%) and personality disorders (18-25%) as adults, and in hundreds of
other ways
mismanage and endanger their lives.
Yet despite these serious consequences, studies indicate that less than half
of those with
the disorder are receiving treatment.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
never having validated a disease/abnormality, they continue, with dogged determination to build their always-circumstantial case for ADHD, the "disease". ]

The media can help substantially to
improve these
circumstances. It can do so by portraying ADHD and the science about it as
accurately and
responsibly as possible while not purveying the propaganda of some social
critics and fringe
doctors whose political agenda would have you and the public believe there
is no real disorder

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Have they forgotten the final statement of ADHD Consensus Conference Panel [17], November 18, 1998:
” …we do not have an independent, valid test for ADHD, and there are no data to indicate that ADHD is due to a brain malfunction.” The “epidemic” as of that date stood at 4.4 million–4.4 million on addictive, dangerous, sometimes deadly Ritalin, Dexedrine, Adderal, Desoxyn, all Schedule II, controlled substances, all without medical justification. I put it to illustrious 74 ADHD “experts”, signers of this “scientific” document, where in the scientific literature, since 11/18/98 might the proof be that ADHD is a bona fide disease; proof that giving any one child drugs such as you prescribe, is, in the least, medically justified]

To publish stories that ADHD is a fictitious disorder or merely a
conflict between today’s
Huckleberry Finns and their caregivers is tantamount to declaring the earth
flat, the laws of
gravity debatable, and the periodic table in chemistry a fraud. ADHD should
be depicted in the
media as realistically and accurately as it is depicted in science — as a
valid disorder having
varied and substantial adverse impact on those who may suffer from it
through no fault of their
own or their parents and teachers.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., and nearly half of the signers of this "show of hands" document are not physicians, and are not trained in medical diagnosis--determining whether or not objective abnormality/disease, is present, and, if so, which it is. The tools of psychology (most of the non-MDs are psychologists) are, to this day, wholly subjective, and are never difinitive when it comes to determining whether or not objective abnormality/disease, is present, and, if so, which one. Finally, and yet again, we have no objective evidence in ADHD of an abnormality/disease. We do not, therefore having anything that can be called the legitimate practice of medicine. There is no disease; there is no epidemic, what is it then. Are they ignorant; misguided, or do then know full-well that the millions of children whose lives are permanently medicalized, who are made life-long patient, and who are unfailingly assigned to drugs known to addict and to damage their brains where there was no disease or damage


Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D.
Depts. Of Psychiatry and Neurology
University of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester, MA 01655

Edwin H. Cook, Jr., M.D.
Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics
University of Chicago
5841 S. Maryland Ave.
Chicago, IL4

Mina Dulcan, M.D.
Department of Child and Adolescent
2300 Children's Plaza #10
Children's Memorial Hospital
Chicago, IL 60614

Susan Campbell, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
4015 O'Hara Street
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15260

Margot Prior, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Royal Children's Hospital
Parkville, 3052 VIC

Marc Atkins, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
University of Illinois at Chicago
Institute for Juvenile Research
Department of Psychiatry
840 South Wood Street, Suite 130
Chicago, IL 60612-7347

Christopher Gillberg, M.D.
Department of Child and Adolescent
University of Gothenberg
Gothenberg, Sweden

Mary Solanto-Gardner, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
The Mt. Sinai Medical Center
One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY 10029-6574

Jeffrey Halperin, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Queens College, CUNY
65-30 Kissena Ave.
Flushing, NY 11367

Jose J. Bauermeister, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of Puerto Rico
San Juan, PR 00927

Steven R. Pliszka, M.D.
Associate Professor and Chief
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
University of Texas Health Sciences Center
7703 Floyd Curl Drive
San Antonio, TX 78229-3900

Mark A. Stein, Ph.D.
Chair of Psychology
Children's National Medical Center and
Professor of Psychiatry & Pediatrics
George Washington Univ. Med. School
111 Michigan Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20010

John S. Werry, M.D.
Professor Emeritus
Department of Psychiatry
University of Auckland
Auckland, New Zealand

Joseph Sergeant, Ph.D.
Chair of Clinical Neuropsychology
Free University
Van der Boecharst Straat 1
De Boelenlaan 1109
1018 BT Amsterdam
The Netherlands5

Ronald T. Brown, Ph.D.
Associate Dean, College of Health
Professor of Pediatrics
Medical University of South Carolina
19 Hagood Avenue
P. O. Box 250822
Charleston, SC 29425

Alan Zametkin, M.D.
Child Psychiatrist
Kensington, MD

Arthur D. Anastopoulos, Ph.D.
Professor, Co-Director of Clinical Training
Department of Psychology
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
P. O. Box 26164
Greensboro, NC 27402-6164

James J. McGough, M.D.
Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry
UCLA School of Medicine
760 Westwood Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90024

George J. DuPaul, Ph.D.
Professor of School Psychology
Lehigh University
111 Research Drive, Hilltop Campus
Bethlehem, PA 18015

Stephen V. Faraone, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Psychology
Harvard University
750 Washington St., Suite 255
South Easton, MA 02375

Florence Levy, M.D.
Associate Professor
School of Psychiatry
University of New South Wales
Avoca Clinic
Joynton Avenue
Zetland, NSW, 2017, Australia

Mariellen Fischer, Ph.D.
Department of Neurology
Medical College of Wisconsin
9200 W. Wisconsin Avenue
Milwaukee, WI 53226

Joseph Biederman, M.D.
Professor and Chief
Joint Program in Pediatric
Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School
15 Parkman St., WACC725
Boston, MA 02114

Cynthia Hartung, Ph.D.
Postdoctoral Fellow
Department of Psychology
Department of Psychology
University of Denver
2155 S. Race St.
Denver, CO 80208

Stephen Houghton, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology
Director, Centre for Attention & Related
The University of Western Australia
Perth, Australia

Gabrielle Carlson, M.D.
Professor and Director,
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
State University of New York at Stony Brook,
Putnam Hall
Stony Brook, NY 117946

Charlotte Johnston, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of British Columbia
2136 West Mall
Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4

Thomas Spencer, M.D.
Associate Professor and Assistant Director, Pediatric
Harvard Medical School and
Massachusetts General Hospital
15 Parkman St., WACC725
Boston, MA 02114

Thomas Joiner, Ph.D.
The Bright-Burton Professor of Psychology
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL 32306-1270

Rosemary Tannock, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry,
Brain and Behavior Research
Hospital for Sick Children
55 University Avenue
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8

Adele Diamond, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry
Director, Center for Developmental
Cognitive Neuroscience
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Shriver Center
Trapelo Rd.
Waltham, MA

Carol Whalen, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology and Social Behavior
University of California at Irvine
3340 Social Ecology II
Irvine, CA 02215

Stephen P. Hinshaw, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology #1650
University of California at Berkeley
3210 Tolman Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720-1650

Herbert Quay, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus
University of Miami
2525 Gulf of Mexico Drive, #5C
Long Boat Key, FL 34228

John Piacentini, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Psychiatry
UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute
760 Westwood Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1759

Philip Firestone, Ph.D.
Departments of Psychology & Psychiatry
University of Ottawa
120 University Priv.
Ottawa, Canada K1N 6N5

Salvatore Mannuzza, M.D.
Research Professor of Psychiatry
New York University School of Medicine
550 First Avenue
New York, NY 10016

Howard Abikoff, Ph.D.
Pevaroff Cohn Professor of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
NYU School of Medicine
Director of Research
NYU Child Study Center
550 First Avenue
New York, NY 100167

Keith McBurnett, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Psychiatry
University of California at San Francisco
Children's Center at Langley Porter
401 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0984
San Francisco, CA 94143

Linda Pfiffner, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Psychiatry
University of California at San Francisco
Children's Center at Langley Porter
401 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0984
San Francisco, CA 94143

Oscar Bukstein, M.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Psychiatry
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
3811 O'Hara Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Ken C. Winters, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Director, Center for Adolescent
Substance Abuse Research
Department of Psychiatry
University of Minnesota
F282/2A West, 2450 Riverside Ave.
Minneapolis, MN 55454

Michelle DeKlyen, Ph.D.
Office of Population Research
Princeton University
286 Wallace
Princeton, NJ 08544

Lily Hechtman M.D. F.R.C.P.
Professor of Psychiatry and Pediatrics,
Director of Research,
Division of Child Psychiatry,
McGill University, and
Montreal Childrens Hospital.
4018 St. Catherine St. West.,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada. H3Z-1P2

Caryn Carlson, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of Texas at Austin
Mezes 330
Austin, TX 78712

Donald R. Lynam, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
University of Kentucky
Department of Psychology
125 Kastle Hall
Lexington, KY 40506-0044

Patrick H. Tolan Ph.D.
Director, Institute for Juvenile Research
Professor, Department of Psychiatry
University of Illinois at Chicago
840 S. Wood Street
Chicago, IL 60612

Jan Loney, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus
State University of New York at Stony
Lodge Associates (Box 9)
Mayslick, KY 41055

Harold S. Koplewicz,M.D.
Arnold and Debbie Simon Professor of Child
and Adolescent
Psychiatry and Director of the NYU Child
Study Center

Richard Milich, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology
Department of Psychology
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-00448

Laurence Greenhill, M.D.
Professor of Clinical Psychiatry
Columbia University
Director, Research Unit on Pediatric
New York State Psychiatric Institute
1051 Riverside Drive
New York, NY 10032

Eric J. Mash, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of Calgary
2500 University Drive N.W.
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4

Russell Schachar, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry
Hospital for Sick Children
555 University Avenue
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M5G 1X8

Eric Taylor
Professor of Psychiatry
Institute of Psychiatry
London, England

Betsy Hoza, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Psychology, #1364
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1364

Mark. D. Rapport, Ph.D.
Professor and Director of Clinical
Department of Psychology
P.O. Box 161390
University of Central Florida
Orlando, Florida 32816-1390

Bruce Pennington, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
University of Denver
2155 south Race Street
Denver, CO 80208

Anita Thapar MB BCh, MRCPsych, PhD
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Section
Dept of Psychological Medicine
University of Wales College of Medicine
Heath Park, Cardiff
CF14 4XN United Kingdom

Ann Teeter, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Psychology
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Milwaukee, WI 53201

Stephen Shapiro, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Auburn University
226 Thach
Auburn, AL 36849-52149

Avi Sadeh, D.Sc
Director, Clinical Child Psychology
Graduate Program
Director, The Laboratory for Children's Sleep
Department of Psychology
Tel-Aviv University
Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978

Bennett L. Leventhal, M.D.
Irving B. Harris Professor of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry
Director, Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Vice Chairman, Dept. of Psychiatry
The University of Chicago
5841 S. Maryland Ave.
Chicago, IL 60637

Hector R. Bird, M.D.
Professor of Clinical Psychiatry
Columbia University
College of Physicians and Surgeons
1051 Riverside Drive (Unit 78)
New York, NY 10032

Carl E. Paternite, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology
Miami University
Oxford, OH 45056

Mary A. Fristad, PhD, ABPP
Professor, Psychiatry & Psychology
Director, Research & Psychological Services
Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
The Ohio State University
1670 Upham Drive Suite 460G
Columbus, OH 43210-1250

Brooke Molina, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
University of Pittsburgh School of
3811 O'Hara Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Sheila Eyberg, PhD, ABPP
Professor of Clinical &Health Psychology
Box 100165
1600 SW Archer Blvd.
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32610

Rob McGee,PhD
Associate Professor,
Department of Preventive & Social
University of Otago Medical School,
Box 913 Dunedin,
New Zealand.

Terri L. Shelton, Ph.D.
Center for the Study of Social Issues
University of North Carolina - Greensboro
Greensboro, NC 27402

Steven W. Evans, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Psychology
MSC 1902
James Madison University
Harrisonburg, VA 2280710

Sandra K. Loo, Ph.D.
Research Psychologist
University of California, Los Angeles
Neuropsychiatric Institute
760 Westwood Plaza, Rm 47-406
Los Angeles, CA 90024

William Pelham, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology
Center Children and Families
State University of New York at Buffalo
318 Diefendorf Hall
3435 Main Street, Building 20
Buffalo, NY 14214

J. Bart Hodgens, Ph.D.
Clinical Assistant Professor
of Psychology and Pediatrics
Civitan International Research Center
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL 35914

Terje Sagvolden, Ph.D.
Department of Physiology
University of Oslo
N-0316 Oslo, Norway

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