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by Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD, 
Fellow, American Academy of Neurology
Member of the SCI Expert Panel 

  APA Statement 
  For Immediate Release: 
  September 26, 2003 
  Release No. 03-39 
  For Information Contact:         
  Amy Levey, 703-907-8534 
  Hillarie Fogel, 703-907-8536

  Over the past five years, the Nation has more than 
  doubled its investment in the study of the human brain
  and behavior leading to a vastly expanded 
  understanding of disorders that afflict and are 
  mediated by the brain.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
FB: Dear APA, please define "disorder".]

  This effort, undertaken by 
  both the public and private research sectors, as well 
  as by diverse professional organizations that are 
  dedicated to moving new information about mental 
  disorders into clinical applications, has greatly 
  improved our ability to treat severe, frequently 
  disabling mental and behavioral disorders 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Dear APA, you must define mental disorder and behavioral disorder.]

 Improved treatments dramatically improve 
  the quality of health care and, in turn, the quality of 
  life for millions of Americans who themselves have a 
  mental disorder as well as for countless families in 
  which a family member has a severe mental or 
  behavioral disorder. 
  It is unfortunate that in the face of this remarkable 
  scientific and clinical progress, a small number of 
  individuals and groups persist in questioning the 
  reality and clinical legitimacy of disorders that 
  affect the mind, brain, and behavior. One recent 
  challenge contended that the lack of a diagnostic 
  laboratory test capable of confirming the presence of 
  a mental disorder constituted evidence that these 
  disorders are not medically valid conditions. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
FB: is not the lack of a test, it is the lack of an abnormality/disease for which to test,
that establishes--leaves no conclusion--but that they are not
abnormalities/diseases/medically valid conditions (if you will)]

  While the membership of the American Psychiatric 
  Association (APA) respects the right of individuals to 
  express their impatience with the pace of science, we 
  note that the human brain is the most complex and 
  challenging object of study in the history of human 
  science. Conditions termed "mental disorders" that 
  affect or are mediated by the brain represent 
  dysfunctions of the highest integrative functions of 
  the human brain including cognition, or thought; 
  emotional regulation; and executive function, or the 
  ability of the brain to plan and organize behavior.  
  Research has shown that serious neurobiological 
  disorders such as schizophrenia reveal reproducible 
  abnormalities of brain structure (such as ventricular 
  enlargement) and function. Compelling evidence exists 
  that disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar 
  disorder, and autism to name a few have a strong 
  genetic component. Still, brain science has not 
  advanced to the point where scientists or clinicians 
  can point to readily discernible pathologic lesions or 
  genetic abnormalities that in and of themselves serve 
  as reliable or predictive biomarkers of a given mental 
  disorder or mental disorders as a group. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
What about just one mental diagnosis condition with an objective abnormality to
make of it a disease/abnormality/valid medical condition... there are none.In
introduction xxi of the DSM IV under definition of Mental Disorder we
are treated to: "Although this volume is titled the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders., the term mental disorder
unfortunately implies a distinction between "mental" disorders and
"physical disorders that is a reductionistic anachronism of mind/body
dualism. A compelling literature documents that there is much
"physical" in "mental" disorders and much "mental" in "physical"
disorders." The say this with no evidence that a single mental
condition/disorder in the DSM-IV is an actual disease having, as it
must, a validating, objective physical abnormality (abnormality =
disease; no abnormality = normal = disease-free) To confuse themselves
and others still further, in the Clinical Psychiatric News 8/02 p 5
"Highlights of the 6 specific DSM-V research agendas, 1. Basic
Nomenclature Issues of the DSM V: How to define "mental disorder" we
read: DSM has never contained a detailed definition that is useful as a
criterion for deciding what is, or is not, a mental disorder.
(this must be taken as coming from the APA DSM committee) In the
meantime they say and infer whenever and however possible that
mental/behavioral/psychiatric conditions/disorders are brain diseases,
chemical imbalances of the brain needing/requiring (if by court order)
treatment always to include chemical

. Ultimately,  no gross anatomical lesion such as a tumor may ever be 
  found; rather, mental disorders will likely be proven 
  to represent disorders of intercellular communication; 
  or of disrupted neural circuitry. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Here, intended or not, is a confession that they have yet to validate a single one as
a disease/brain disease. SCI and the HUNGER STRIKERS are to be congratulated that
they got this mealy-mouthed confession out of the ever-duplicitous APA. One can
literally feel how desparate they are to preserve the illusion of all things mental as brain
diseases, a propaganda strategy-sans science they set in the 1960's ]

  Research already has 
  elucidated some of the mechanisms of action of 
  medications that are effective for depression, 
  schizophrenia, anxiety, attention deficit, and 
  cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Here, as always is the lexical strategem of mixing things psychiatric, depression,
schizophrenia, anxiety, attention deficit--none diseases, with actual neurological diseases,
in this instance Alzheimer's disease. Not only have they never validated a single
psychiatric entity as a real disease, they never will, for all of them are wholly-subjective
contrivances of the DSM Committee of the APA where they are voted--show of hands--
into existence. As in the past as as according to the pledge of Steven Hyman former
NIMH director, they will waste taxpayer and pharma dollars (we will pay however as
increased cost of drugs) applying every old and new tool of science to the "investigation"
of their contrived, invented, fraudulent brain disorders, chemical imbalances, for no
reason but to compile a voluminous if fraudulent literature seeming to validate such
things as diseases, but validating nothing whatsoever]

  These medications clearly exert influence on specific 
  neurotransmitters, naturally occurring brain chemicals 
  that effect, or regulate, communication between neurons 
  in regions of the brain that control mood, complex 
  reasoning, anxiety, and cognition. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
They invariably damage the brain and body which, with any psychiatric disorder
were previously normal--entirely normal.]

 In 1970, The Nobel 
  Prize was awarded to Julius Axelrod, Ph.D., of the 
  National Institute of Mental Health, for his discovery 
  of how anti-depressant medications regulate the 
  availability of neurotransmitters such as 
  norepinephrine in the synapses, or gaps, between nerve 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
True enough , however no physical abnormality making depression a
disease/abnormality has ever been found. All known antidepressants like all
psychotropic drugs invariably damage the brain and body--the first and only damage,
there having been no disease. ]

  In the absence of one or more biological markers for 
  mental disorders, these conditions are defined by a 
  variety of concepts. These include the distress 
  experienced and reported by a person who has a mental 
  disorder; the level of disability associated with a 
  particular condition; patterns of behavior; and 
  statistical deviation from population-based norms for 
  cognitive processes, mood regulation, or other indices 
  of thought, emotion, and behavior. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
No physical or chemical abnormalities--no actual diseases. There being no
diseases, there are no prognoses, which psychiatry contrives as well, saying that such
persons will have an invariable downhill course, controllable only with medication, when
emotions characteristically come and go with changes in one's life-situation. ]

  As noted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of 
  Mental Disorders, which is published by the APA, the 
  lack of a laboratory-based diagnostic test is not 
  unique to mental and behavioral disorders. The 
  identification of migraine headache is based on 
  symptom presentation, and the presence of hypertension 
  is detected through a measure of deviance from a 
  physiological norm, or standard. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
True or classic migraine is often accompanied by transient scotomata which can be
mapped with a visual field test, its physical abnormalities of the occipital lobes of the
brain, proven, as can be done with concurrent PET or SPECT scanning]

  The definition of 
  'high" cholesterol has moved downward in recent years 
  as more has been learned about the role of low-density 
  lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as a risk factor for 
  cardiovascular disease and as medications highly 
  effective in reducing LDL cholesterol have been 
  refined and increasingly available. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia both, in time have their pathological
correlates in coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, not to mention stoke
and heart attack There are no such physical/pathological correlates of psychiatric
conditions. There are of taking any and all psychiatric drugs short or long-term]

  The mapping of the human genome already is spurring 
  the search for genes and gene variants that singly or 
  in combination may confer risk for the onset of a 
  mental disorder. It is highly likely that the 
  maladaptive expression of a risk gene will be shown to 
  require "triggering" by certain adverse environmental 
  influences. Here, "environment" may refer to 
  traumatic events, prenatal/obstetric complications, or 
  other phenomena that act on and interact with the 
  brain. Thus, mental disorders may well be shown to be 
  emergent properties of multiple systems that have gone 
  subtly awry. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Where no physical abnormality/marker is present it cannot be said the phenotype
is abnormal or that there is a corresponding abnormal genotype (abnormal gene or

  The lack of a laboratory-based diagnostic test for 
  mental disorders does not diminish the irrefutable 
  evidence that mental and behavioral disorders exact 
  devastating emotional and financial tolls on 
  individuals, families, communities, and our Nation. 
  The National Institute of Mental Health estimates the 
  direct (clinical treatment and services) and indirect 
  (lost/diminished productivity and premature mortality) 
  cost of mental disorders to be some $160 billion 
  annually in the United States. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
None of this confirms even one as a disease]

  And the landmark 
  Global Burden of Disease study, conducted by Harvard 
  University scientists under the sponsorship of the 
  World Health Organization and the World Bank, found 
  mental disorders, including suicide, to rank second in 
  societal burden, behind only cardiovascular conditions, 
  in established market economies such as the U.S. 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
Because they choose to classify such things as diseases, trying their best to get the
consumer public to believe they are, the better, Grandma, to sell you drugs...the better to
get Medicaid and Medicare to pay for your psych drugs, the better to get social services
to coerce you to take them, their new police-in-the name of psychiatry role. Nor is it
limited to Grandma...they are not above drugging infants, toddlers, anyone who can
swallow, those who can't, depot injections will be arranged, the goverment, courts and
police will help there too, no doubt]

  Growing public awareness of the burden and costs of 
  mental illness and of the gains being made through 
  research are contributing to increasingly enlightened 
  policies for the organization and financing of mental 
  health care. Last year, President Bush identified 
  three obstacles that prevent Americans from getting 
  the mental health care that they need - stigma, unfair 
  treatment limitations and financial requirements under 
  health insurance plans, and a fragmented mental health 
  service delivery program. In April, the President's 
  New Freedom Commission on Mental Health recommended 
  strategies for redressing these and other barriers to 
  high quality, appropriate mental health care for all 
  Americans who need it. The APA was privileged to 
  participate in the development of the report and 
  strongly endorses the call of the President's New 
  Freedom Commission " protect and enhance the 
  rights of people with mental illness." 
  In the months and years ahead, the APA, along with the 
  National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, the Nation's 
  mental health research and clinical communities, and 
  the public at large will strive to achieve the 
  President's New Freedom Mental Health vision, and will 
  not be distracted by those who would deny that serious 
  mental disorders are real medical conditions that can 
  be diagnosed accurately and treated effectively. 
  The American Psychiatric Association is a national 
  medical specialty society, founded in 1844, whose 
  35,000 physician members specialize in the diagnosis, 
  treatment and prevention of mental illnesses including 
  substance use disorders. For more information, visit 
  the APA Web site at 

[Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD:
This is quite a remarkable document, because, for all of its standard duplictous,
roundabout pseudoscientific, pseuomedical talk, it is, after all a confession that there is no
such thing as a mental/psychiatric brain abnormality/disease/syndrome/chemical
balance. Observe there is no bibliography as in any scientific document, not a citation to
proof that a single psychiatric disorder/chemical imbalance is an actual
abnormality/disease, needing/requiring or justifying medical or surgical treatment. That is
what they insist to patients to be able to convince them drugs are necessary because they
are owned, lock stock and barrel by Big Pharma and whoa be unto us, the Congress is
too.--Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD, Fellow, American Academy of Neurology, 9/26/03


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